Relation of Colloidal and Conformational Stabilities to Aggregate Formation in a Monoclonal Antibody

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | October 24, 2019

Hiroaki Oyama, Hiroki Koga, Takashi Tadokoro, Katsumi Maenaka, Akira Shiota, Masami Yokoyama, Masanori Noda, Tetsuo Torisu, Susumu Uchiyama

J Pharm Sci. 2020 Jan;109(1):308-315. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2019.10.038. Epub 2019 Oct 24.


Aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies has a potential risk of immunogenicity, requiring minimization of aggregate formation. We have developed a fitting formula for antibody aggregation at 40°C based on physicochemical parameters, including colloidal and conformational stabilities. An IgG1 monoclonal antibody, MAb-T, was formulated in 24 combinations of different buffer types and pH with or without sodium chloride. The fitting formula for monomer loss was successfully established by nonlinear regression analysis of the results from accelerated stability testing. Calculated monomer fraction values by the fitting formula were strongly correlated with experimental values (R2 = 0.92). The model includes secondary virial coefficient, B22, as the representative parameter of colloidal stability, and aggregation temperature, Tagg, representing conformational stability. Then, we examined charge state, conformational flexibility, and thermal unfolding profile of MAb-T to clarify the molecular basis for the different aggregation propensities in sodium acetate buffer and in sodium citrate buffer at the same pH and buffer concentration. We concluded that the accumulation of citrate anions on the surface of MAb-T is the primary source of the less colloidal and conformational stabilities, resulting in the higher aggregation propensity in sodium citrate buffer.