Oxidation and Deamidation of Monoclonal Antibody Products:
Potential Impact on Stability, Biological Activity, and Efficacy

Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | December 7, 2021

Surbhi Gupta, Wim Jiskoot, Christian Sch├Âneich, Anurag S Rathore

J Pharm Sci. 2022 Apr;111(4):903-918. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2021.11.024. Epub 2021 Dec 7.


The role in human health of therapeutic proteins in general, and monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in particular, has been significant and is continuously evolving. A considerable amount of time and resources are invested first in mAb product development and then in clinical examination of the product. Physical and chemical degradation can occur during manufacturing, processing, storage, handling, and administration. Therapeutic proteins may undergo various chemical degradation processes, including oxidation, deamidation, isomerization, hydrolysis, deglycosylation, racemization, disulfide bond breakage and formation, Maillard reaction, and ╬▓-elimination. Oxidation and deamidation are the most common chemical degradation processes of mAbs, which may result in changes in physical properties, such as hydrophobicity, charge, secondary or/and tertiary structure, and may lower the thermodynamic or kinetic barrier to unfold. This may predispose the product to aggregation and other chemical modifications, which can alter the binding affinity, half-life, and efficacy of the product. This review summarizes major findings from the past decade on the impact of oxidation and deamidation on the stability, biological activity, and efficacy of mAb products. Mechanisms of action, influencing factors, characterization tools, clinical impact, and risk mitigation strategies have been addressed.